121 Greene, Education Myths: What Special-Interest Groups Want You to Believe About Our Schools— and Why It Isn't So, 51.

122 "Proven Methods, Highly Qualified Teachers for Every Child" (U.S. Department of Education, 2006), www.ed.gov/nclb/methods/teachers/stateplanfacts.html (accessed May 18, 2008).

123 This reform is also suggested by Gordon, Kane and Staiger, "Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job"; Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers"; Murnane and Steele, "What Is the Problem? The Challenge of Providing Effective Teachers for All Children"; "Teaching at Risk: Progress and Potholes" (The Teaching Commission); Castle and Jacobs, "State Teacher Policy Yearbook — Progress on Teacher Quality."

124 Castle and Jacobs, "State Teacher Policy Yearbook — Progress on Teacher Quality."

125 McCaffrey et al., "Models for Value-Added Modeling of Teacher Effects," 68.

126 Murnane and Steele, "What Is the Problem? The Challenge of Providing Effective Teachers for All Children." The National Center for Teaching Quality highlights similar limitations.

127 Dale Ballou, "Sizing up Test Scores," Education Next 2, no. 2 (2002).

128 "MEAP Assessment Administrator Manual, Grades 3-9, Fall 2007" (Michigan Department of Education, Michigan Educational Assessment Program, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/ MEAP_Admin_Manual_F07_FINAL_205351_7.pdf (accessed July 9, 2008).

129 Gordon, Kane and Staiger, "Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job," 21.

130 Ibid.

131 Ibid.

132 "NWEA Members: Michigan" (Northwest Evaluation Association, 2008), www.nwea.org/about/members.asp?stateCode=MI (accessed May 13, 2008).

133 John Cronin, spokesman for the Northwest Evaluation Association, E-mail correspondence with Marc Holley, April 2, 2008.

134 Richard Buddin et al., "Merit Pay for Florida Teachers: Design and Implementation Issues" (RAND Working Papers, 2007), http://rand.org/pubs/working_papers/2007/RAND_WR508.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008).

135 Ibid. In this summary, Buddin et al. point to the findings of Brian Jacob and Lars Lefgren, "Principals as Agents: Subjective Performance Measurement in Education," in Faculty Research Working Papers Series (Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2005).

136 Jacob and Lefgren, "Principals as Agents: Subjective Performance Measurement in Education," 8.

137 Ibid., 3.

138 Ibid., 9.

139 Ibid., 22-23.

140 Ibid.

141 Douglas Harris and Tim Sass, "What Makes for a Good Teacher and Who Can Tell," APPAM Conference (Washington, D.C.: 2007), 1-35.

142 Ibid., 1.

143 Michael Podgursky and Matthew G. Springer, "Teacher Performance Pay: A Review" (National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006), www.performanceincentives.org/data/files/news/PapersNews/ Podgursky_and_Springer_2006_Revised.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008).

144 "Districts Report Some Success on Teacher Pay Incentives," Michigan Education Report, May 24, 2007, www.educationreport.org/8497 (accessed June 26, 2008).

145 Allan Odden et al., "Enhancing Teacher Quality through Knowledge- and Skills- Based Pay" (Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2001), www.wcer.wisc.edu/CPRE/publications/rb34.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008).

146 Herbert Heneman, Anthony Milanowski and Steven Kimball, "Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis of Plans, Research, and Guidelines for Practice" (Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2007), www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/33/59/0d.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008).

147 Ibid.

148 Ibid.

149 David J. Hoff, "Unions, Miller Spar over Teacher Pay," Education Week, September 10, 2007, http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/NCLB-ActII/2007/09/testy_merit_pay_exchange.html (accessed June 26, 2008).

150 Ibid.

151 David N. Figlio and Lawrence Kenny "Individual Teacher Incentives and Student Performance," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 12627, 10 (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006), www.nber.org/papers/w12627.pdf?new_window=1.

152 Ibid., 13.

153 Ibid., 14.

154 Lewis C. Solmon and Michael Podgursky, "The Pros and Cons of Performance-Based Compensation" (Milken Family Foundation, 2000), www.mff.org/pubs/Pros_cons.pdf (accessed may 18, 2008); Joshua H. Barnett, "How Does Merit Pay Change Schools" (Dissertation, University of Arkansas, 2007); Podgursky and Springer, "Teacher Performance Pay: A Review"; Marc Holley, Joshua H. Barnett and Gary W. Ritter, "Merit Pay: A Discussion of the Issues" (Office for Education Policy, University of Arkansas, 2007), www.uark.edu/ua/oep/policy_briefs/2007/Policy_Brief_10_Merit_Pay.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008); Heneman, Milanowski and Kimball, "Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis of Plans, Research, and Guidelines for Practice."

155 Marcus A. Winters et al., "An Evaluation of Teacher Performance Pay in Arkansas" (Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas, 2007), www.uark.edu/ua/der/Research/performance_pay_ar.html (accessed May 18, 2008); Gary W. Ritter et al., "Year Two Evaluation of the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project in the Little Rock Public School District" (Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas, 2008), http://uark.edu/ua/der/Research/merit_pay/year_two/Full_Report_with_Appendices.pdf (accessed May 18, 2008).

156 Winters et al., "An Evaluation of Teacher Performance Pay in Arkansas."

157 Ritter et al., "Year Two Evaluation of the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project in the Little Rock Public School District," 3-4.

158 Ibid., 6.

159 Ibid.

160 Ibid.

161 Ibid.

162 Charles T. Clotfelter and Helen F. Ladd, "Recognizing and Rewarding Success in Public Schools," Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education, ed. Helen F. Ladd, 27 (Brookings Institution, 1996).

163 Carolyn B. Horan and Vicki Lambert, "Evaluation of Utah Career Ladder Programs" (Beryl Buck Institute for Education, 1994), http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/15/8a/93.pdf (accessed May 19, 2008).

164 Carolyn Hoxby and Andrew Leigh, "Wage Distortion: Why America’s Top Female College Graduates Aren’t Teaching."

165 Clotfelter and Ladd, "Recognizing and Rewarding Success in Public Schools," Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education.

166 "Teacher Incentive Fund" (U.S. Department of Education, 2007), www.ed.gov/programs/teacherincentive/awards.html (accessed May 18, 2008).

167 David H. Monk, "Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas," The Future of Children 17, no. 1 (2007).

168 "Professional Compensation" (American Federation of Teachers), www.aft.org/topics/teacher-quality/comp.htm (accessed May 19, 2008).

169 Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers"; Stotsky and Haverty, "Can a State Department of Education Increase Teacher Quality? Lessons Learned in Massachusetts."

170 Frederick Hess, "Teacher Quality, Teacher Pay" (Hoover Institution, 2004), www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3438676.html (accessed May 19, 2008).

171 Dan D. Goldhaber, Kate Destler and Dan Player, "Teacher Labor Markets and the Perils of Using Hedonics to Estimate Compensating Differentials in the Public Sector" (Center on Reinventing Public Education, 2007), www.crpe.org/cs/crpe/download/csr_files/wp_sfrp17_goldhaber_aug07.pdf (accessed May 19, 2008).

172 Kenneth M. Braun, "An Analysis of Proposal 5: The ‘K-16’ Michigan Ballot Measure" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), www.mackinac.org/archives/2006/s2006-05.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

173 Ryan S. Olson and Michael D. LaFaive, "A Michigan School Money Primer" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007) 99, 109, www.mackinac.org/archives/2007/s2007-04.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

174 "NCLB Revised Highly Qualified Teacher State Plan." The NCTQ credits Michigan for having this plan National Council on Teacher Quality.

175 Benjamin J. Keys and Thomas S. Dee, "Dollars and Sense: What a Tennessee Experiment Tells Us About Merit Pay," Education Next 5, no. 1 (2005).

176 Ibid., 63.

177 Ibid., 66-67.

178 Horan and Lambert, "Evaluation of Utah Career Ladder Programs," 1-160.

179 Ibid., 24

180 Johnson, Berg and Donaldson, "Who Stays in Teaching and Why: A Review of the Literature on Teacher Retention."