1 "The Nation's Report Card: Overview" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2008), http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/about/ (accessed May 8, 2008).

2 "State Profiles: The Nation’s Report Card" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2008), Michigan profile, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/states/ (accessed June 13, 2008).

3 Ibid.

4 "Core of Common Data" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2008), http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/ (accessed May 8, 2008).

5 Ibid., and "Overview of BLS Statistics on Inflation and Consumer Spending" (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008), CPI Inflation Calculator, www.bls.gov/bls/inflation.htm (accessed June 11, 2008).

6 Ryan S. Olson, "Michigan Rankings on National Education Test Fall in 8th Grade, Stagnate in 4th; Proficiency Scores Flat" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), www.mackinac.org/9010 (accessed May 8, 2008).

7 "May 2007 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates" (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008) www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_mi.htm#b15-0000 (accessed June 15, 2008). This ranking is of state mean salaries for elementary school teachers, except special education.

8 "Public Education Finances 2006" (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008), http://ftp2.census.gov/govs/school/06f33pub.pdf (accessed June 13, 2008); "Statistical Tables: Public Elementary-Secondary Education Finances: 2004-05" (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008), http://ftp2.census.gov/govs/school/elsec05_sttables.xls (accessed May 8, 2008).

9 "IES National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data Build a Table: 2004-2005 Data, Per Pupil Ratios [State], Total Current Expenditures for Public El-Sec Per Student (State-Fin.)" (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008), http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/ (accessed June 13, 2008).

10 Dan D. Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics," Education Next 2, no. 1 (2002).

11 Eric Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers," Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2004, ed. Diane Ravitch (Brookings Institution, 2004).

12 Ibid. See similar findings in William L. Sanders and June Rivers, "Research Progress Report: Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement: Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System" (University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center, 1996), www.cgp.upenn.edu/pdf/Sanders_Rivers-TVASS_teacher%20effects.pdf (accessed May 8, 2008).

13 Linda Darling-Hammond, "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence" (Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2000), http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/ (accessed June 25, 2008).

14 Terry M. Moe, "Collective Bargaining and the Performance of the Public Schools" (Education Working Paper Archive, 2007), www.uark.edu/ua/der/EWPA/Research/Achievement/1795.html (accessed May 8, 2008).

15 Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics"; Steven G. Rivkin, Eric Hanushek and John F. Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," Econometrica 73, no. 2 (2005).

16 Dale Ballou and Michael Podgursky, "Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What Is the Evidence?," Teachers College Record 102, no. 1 (2000).

17 Richard J. Murnane and Jennifer L. Steele, "What Is the Problem? The Challenge of Providing Effective Teachers for All Children," The Future of Children 17, no. 1 (2007). The evidence they cite comes from Eric Hanushek, "Teacher Characteristics and Gains in Student Achievement: Estimation Using Micro Data," The American Economic Review 61, no. 2 (1971); Ronald Ferguson and Helen F. Ladd, "How and Why Money Matters: An Analysis of Alabama Schools," Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education, ed. Helen F. Ladd (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1996); R. G. Ehrenberg and D. J. Brewer, "Do School and Teacher Characteristics Matter? Evidence from High School and Beyond," Economics of Education Review 13, no. 1 (1994). This point is also made by Sandra Stotsky and Lisa Haverty, "Can a State Department of Education Increase Teacher Quality? Lessons Learned in Massachusetts," Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2004, ed. Diane Ravitch (Brookings Institution Press, 2004).

18 Robin Henke, Xianglei Chen and Sonya Geis, "Progress through the Teacher Pipeline: 1992—93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary School Teaching as of 1997" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2000), http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000152.pdf (accessed May 8, 2008).

19 Susanna Loeb and Michelle Reininger, "Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters" (Education Policy Center, Michigan State University, 2004), www.epc.msu.edu/publications/publications.htm (accessed May 8, 2008).

20 Eric Hanushek and Richard Pace, "Who Chooses to Teach (and Why)?" Economics of Education Review 14, no. 2 (1995).

21 E. Vegas, R.J. Murnane, and J.B. Willet, "From High School to Teaching: Many Steps, Who Makes It?" Teachers College Record 103, no. 3 (2001).

22 Loeb and Reininger, "Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters."

23 Henke, Chen and Geis, "Progress through the Teacher Pipeline: 1992-93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary School Teaching as of 1997."

24 Sean P. Corcoran, William N. Evans and Robert M. Schwab, "Women, the Labor Market, and the Declining Relative Quality of Teachers," Journal of Public Policy Analysis and Management 23, no. 3 (2004).

25 Ibid., 466.

26 Caroline Hoxby and Andrew Leigh, "Wage Distortion: Why America’s Top Female College Graduates Aren’t Teaching," Education Next Spring (2005), 56.

27 Jean Protsik, "History of Teacher Pay and Incentive Reforms," Journal of School Leadership 6, no. 3 (1996).

28 "History of Teacher Pay," Consortium for Policy Research in Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, www.wcer.wisc.edu/CPRE/tcomp/general/teacherpay.php (accessed June 15, 2008).

29 Ferguson and Ladd, "How and Why Money Matters," 278.

30 Rivkin, Hanushek and Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement."

31 Ibid.

32 Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd and Jacob L. Vigdor, "Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness," Journal of Human Resources 41, no. 4 (2006).

33 Ibid., 793.

34 Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd and Jacob L. Vigdor. "Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects," National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Working Paper 11, October (2007), www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001104_Teacher_Credentials_HighSchool.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

35 Similar findings regarding the effectiveness of novice teachers can be found in Donald Boyd et al., "The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools" (Urban Institute, 2007), www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=1001103 (accessed May 8, 2008).

36 Dan D. Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" (Urban Institute, 2007), 15, www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001072_everyones_doing.PDF (accessed May 13, 2008).

37 Ibid.

38 Jay P. Greene, Education Myths: What Special-Interest Groups Want You to Believe About Our Schools— and Why It Isn't So (New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005).

39 Ibid. In making this claim, Greene refers to Kate Walsh, "Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality" (The Abell Foundation, 2002), www.abell.org/pubsitems/ed_cert_1101.pdf (accessed May 13, 2008).

40 Digest of Education Statistics 2007, "Table 64, Highest Degree Earned, Years of Full-Time Teaching Experience, and Average Class Size for Teachers in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, by State: 2003-04" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2007), http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_064.asp?referrer=list (accessed May 13, 2008).

41 Protsik, "History of Teacher Pay and Incentive Reforms."

42 Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics."

43 Ferguson and Ladd, "How and Why Money Matters," 278.

44 Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers"; Rivkin, Hanushek and Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement."

45 Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?," 14.

46 Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics," 53.

47 Ibid, 54.

48 See MCL 380.1531 (general rule), MCL 380.505(2) (allowing limited exceptions for charter schools).

49 "The Secretary’s Fifth Annual Report on Teacher Quality: A Highly Qualified Teacher in Every School Classroom" (Office of Postsecondary Preparation, U.S. Department of Education, 2006), www.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/teachprep/2006-title2report.pdf (accessed May 13, 2008).

50 Mich. Admin. Code r. 390.1101(a).

51 "Frequently Asked Questions for MTTC," Michigan Department of Education, www.michigan.gov/mde/0,1607,7-140-6530_5683_5857-116214--,00.html (accessed June 10, 2008).

52 Mich. Admin. Code, r. 390.115(3).

53 "Frequently Asked Questions" (Michigan Department of Education Office of Professional Preparation Services, 2005), www.michigan.gov/documents/faq_21180_7.pdf (accessed May 15, 2008).

54 Jess Castle and Sandi Jacobs, "State Teacher Policy Yearbook — Progress on Teacher Quality" (National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007), www.nctq.org/stpy/reports/stpy_national.pdf (accessed September 11, 2007). This report contains detailed information on Michigan teacher preparation and licensure requirements.

55 Michigan Teacher Certification Code, R. 390.1126.

56 Ibid. at 390.1127.

57 Ibid. at 390.1123(2). "The applicant shall present evidence of participation [in] a supervised directed teaching experience at the level for which the certificate is to be granted. The directed teaching assignment shall be for a minimum duration of 12 weeks and for a minimum of 6 semester credit hours."

58 Mike Flanagan, "Report on Teacher Preparation Institution Performance Scores" (Michigan Department of Education, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Item_W_204559_7.pdf (accessed May 15, 2008).

59 "Minutes: State Board of Education: August 7, 2007" (Michigan Department of Education, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/MinutesAug07_208791_7.pdf (accessed June 14, 2008).

60 Ibid.