61 Linda Darling-Hammond et al., "Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence About Teacher Certification, Teach for America, and Teacher Effectiveness," Education Policy Analysis Archives 13, no. 42 (2005).

62 Ibid.

63 In asserting that teacher education and certification positively impact student achievement, the authors cite Dan D. Goldhaber and D. J. Brewer, "Does Teacher Certification Matter? High School Teacher Certification Status and Student Achievement," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 22 (2000): 129-45; P. Hawk, C. Coble and M. Swanson, "Certification: It Does Matter," Journal of Teacher Education 36, no. 3 (1985): 13-15; David H. Monk, "Subject Area Preparation of Secondary Mathematics and Science Teachers and Student Achievement," Economics of Education Review 13, no. 2 (1994); R.P. Strauss and E.A. Sawyer, "Some New Evidence on Teacher and Student Competencies," Economics of Education Review 5, no. 1 (1986); Harold Wenglinsky, "How Teaching Matters: Bringing the Classroom Back into Discussions of Teacher Quality" (The Milken Family Foundation and Educational Testing Service, 2000), www.ets.org/Media/Education_Topics/pdf/teamat.pdf (accessed May 15, 2008); Suzanne Wilson, Robert Floden, and Joan Ferrini-Mundy, "Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations" (Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy and Michigan State University, 2001), http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs/TeacherPrep-WFFM-02-2001.pdf (accessed May 15, 2008).

64 Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?," 14.

65 Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers"; Robert Gordon, Thomas J. Kane and Douglas O. Staiger, "Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job" (Brookings Institute, 2006), www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200604hamilton_1.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008); Christopher Jepsen and Steven G. Rivkin, "What Is the Tradeoff Between Smaller Classes and Teacher Quality" (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002), http://ssrn.com/abstract=332249 (accessed July 9, 2008). These authors also cite Eric Hanushek et al., "The Market for Teacher Quality," American Economic Association Meetings (Philadelphia: 2005); Ballou and Podgursky, "Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What Is the Evidence?" Margaret Raymond, Stephen Fletcher and Javier Luque, "Teach for America: An Evaluation of Teacher Differences and Student Outcomes in Houston, Texas" (Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2001), http://credo.stanford.edu/downloads/tfa.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008); Thomas J. Kane, Jonah E. Rockoff and Douglas O. Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City" (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2006), 1-66, www.dartmouth.edu/~dstaiger/Papers/nyc%20fellows%20march%202006.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008).

66 Kane, Rockoff and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," 1-66.

67 Ibid.

68 "Frequently Asked Questions" (NYC Teaching Fellows, 2008), www.nyctf.org/f_a_q/program_faq.html#aftertwoyears (accessed May 16, 2008).

69 Kane, Rockoff and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City."

70 Paul T. Decker, Daniel P. Mayer and Steven Glazerman, "The Effects of Teach for America on Students: Findings from a National Evaluation" (Mathematica Policy Research, 2004), www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/teach.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008).

71 Susan Moore Johnson, Jill Harrison Berg and Morgaen L. Donaldson, "Who Stays in Teaching and Why: A Review of the Literature on Teacher Retention" (The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, Havard Graduate School of Education, 2005), www.aarp.org_/articles/NRTA/Harvard_report.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008) also give the Mathematica study extra consideration. Thomas D. Cook uses a similar line of argument in Thomas D. Cook, "Considering the Major Arguments Against Random Assignment: An Analysis of the Intellectual Culture Surrounding Evaluation in American Schools of Education," Harvard Faculty Seminar on Experiments in Education (Cambridge, Mass.: 1999).

72 "About the MTTC: Program Overview," Pearson Education, Inc., www.mttc.nesinc.com/MI12_overview.asp (accessed May 16, 2008).

73 "Frequently Asked Questions for MTTC," www.michigan.gov/mde/ 0,1607,7-140-6530_5683_5857-116214--,00.html#mttc2 (accessed May 16, 2007).

74 Ibid.

75 Ruth Mitchell and Patte Barth, "How Teacher Licensing Tests Fall Short," Thinking K-16 Volume 3, Issue 1 (The Education Trust, 1999), www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/5F7B8FCA-2400-47DE-9C40-AC948D934836/0/k16_spring99.pdf (accessed June 27, 2008).

76 Sandra Stotsky, "Teacher Licensure Tests: Their Relationship to Mathematics Teachers' Academic Competence and Student Achievement in Mathematics" (Education Working Paper Archive, 2007), www.uark.edu/ua/der/EWPA/Research/Teacher_Quality/1798.html (accessed May 16, 2007).

77 "The Secretary’s Fifth Annual Report on Teacher Quality: A Highly Qualified Teacher in Every School Classroom."

78 "Frequently Asked Questions for MTTC," Question Number Three: "Michigan law requires that teacher candidates for Michigan's initial, provisional teaching certification must pass all three subtests of the Basic Skills test before enrolling in student teaching. Some colleges and universities require a passing score on all three Basic Skills subtests for admission into a teacher preparation program," www.michigan.gov/mde/ 0,1607,7-140-6530_5683_5857-116214--,00.html#mttc2 (accessed May 16, 2007).

79 Michael P. Flanagan, "Report on Teacher Preparation Institution Scores" (Michigan Department of Education, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Item_W_204559_7.pdf (accessed May 22, 2008).

80 Sandra Stotsky, "Why American Students Do Not Learn to Read Very Well: The Unintended Consequences of Title II and Teacher Testing," Independent Education Review: The Journal on Education Policy 2, no. 2 (2006): 6.

81 Ibid.: 8.

82 Clotfelter, Ladd and Vigdor, "Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness."

83 Ibid, 799.

84 Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?"; Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers."

85 Ibid.

86 Stotsky, "Teacher Licensure Tests: Their Relationship to Mathematics Teachers' Academic Competence and Student Achievement in Mathematics."

87 Dale Ballou and Michael Podgursky, "Recruiting Smarter Teachers," Journal of Human Resources 30, no. 2 (1995): 326-38.

88 Ibid.

89 Loeb and Reininger, "Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters."

90 Reg Weaver, "Opposing View: Reject Federal Pay Mandates" (USA Today, 2007), http://blogs.usatoday.com/oped/2007/09/opposing-view-r.html (accessed May 16, 2008).

91 "NEA Student Program" (National Education Association), www.nea.org/student-program/about/ state2.html#michigan (accessed May 16, 2008).

92 Nick Bunkley, "Michigan Government Shutdown Ends," The New York Times, October 1, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/10/01/us/01cnd-michigan.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin (accessed June 26, 2008).

93 Reg Weaver, "No Child Left Behind," The New York Times, September 10, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/09/10/opinion/lweb10teachers.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin (accessed June 26, 2008).

94 "The Class-Size Reduction Program: Boosting Achievement in Schools across the Nation. A First Year Report" (U.S. Department of Education, 2001), www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/ClassSize/class.pdf (accessed May 16, 2008).

95 Douglas Harris, "Class Size and School Size: Taking the Trade-Offs Seriously," Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2006-2007, ed. Frederick Hess and Tom Loveless (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2007), 137-61.

96 Ibid., 153.

97 Rivkin, Hanushek and Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement."

98 Ibid., 447.

99 "Class Size Reduction in California: The 1998-99 Evaluation Findings" (CSR Research Consortium), www.classize.org/summary/98-99/index.htm (accessed May 16, 2008).

100 Rivkin, Hanushek and Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," 447.

101 Ibid.

102 Greene, Education Myths: What Special-Interest Groups Want You to Believe About Our Schools— and Why It Isn't So, 55.

103 "Class Size Reduction in California: The 1998-99 Evaluation Findings."

104 Ibid.

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid.

107 Ibid.

108 "Statistical Tables: Public Elementary-Secondary Education Finances: 1998-99" (U.S. Census Bureau, 1999), http://ftp2.census.gov/govs/school/99tables.pdf (accessed May 17, 2008).

109 B.J. Biddle and David C. Berliner, "Class Size, School Size," Educational Leadership 59, no. 5 (2002).

110 Ibid.

111 Greene, Education Myths: What Special-Interest Groups Want You to Believe About Our Schools— and Why It Isn't So, 50.

112 Harris, "Class Size and School Size: Taking the Trade-Offs Seriously," 137.

113 Ibid., 140-42.

114 Ibid., 140-44.

115 Ibid., 147.

116 Ibid., 139.

117 "Rankings & Estimates, Rankings of the States 2005 and Estimates of School Statistics 2006" (National Education Association, 2006), www.nea.org/edstats/images/06rankings.pdf (accessed May 17, 2008).

118 "Michigan State Profile" (National Center for Education Statistics, 2006), http://nces.ed.gov/naep3/states/profile.asp (accessed May 17, 2008).

119 Terry M. Moe, "Political Control and the Power of the Agent," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 22, no. 1 (2006).

120 Harris, "Class Size and School Size: Taking the Trade-Offs Seriously," 154.