1 "Annual Privatization Report 2006: Transforming Government Through Privatization," (Reason Foundation, 2006), 3, 24, www.reason.org/apr2006/apr2006.pdf.

2 "Largest Federal Divestiture Completed, Elk Hills Transferred to Private Owner," U.S. Department of Energy, www.fossil.energy.gov/news/techlines/1998/tl_elsold.html (accessed March 19, 2007).

3 "Annual Privatization Report 2006: Transforming Government Through Privatization," 47-54.

4 Ibid., 51.

5 "Federal Outsourcing in Michigan," in Michigan Privatization Report (2005), 14-15.

6 "Annual Privatization Report 2006: Transforming Government Through Privatization," 47.

7 "Privatized Accident Fund Celebrates Fifth Anniversary," in Michigan Privatization Report (1999), 17.

8 "Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Prisoners in 2005," ed. United States Department of Justice (2006), 6.

9 E.S. Savas, Privatization in the City: Successes, Failures, Lessons (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005).

10 Lei Zhou et al., "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2004-2005 (Fiscal Year 2005)," (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 2, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007356.pdf (accessed April 17, 2007).

11 Brian Maka, e-mail correspondence with Michael LaFaive, May 9, 2007.

12 Ibid.

13 Jack Donahue, The Warping of Government Work (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, forthcoming).

14 Ibid.

15 ———, e-mail correspondence with Michael LaFaive, May 3, 2007.

16 Author's calculation based on "Registry of Educational Personnel Full-Time Equivalency Data State Level 2005-2006 School Year," (Michigan Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/cepi/sstaff06_172407_7.dbf (accessed April 19, 2007).

17 Jay Wortley and Katherine Summers-Coty, "Consensus Revenue Estimates for FY 2006-07 and FY 2007-08 and School Aid Foundation Allowance Index Estimate for FY 2007-08," (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2007), 3, www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Publications/BudUpdates/ ConsensusRevEstimates.pdf (accessed May 18, 2007).

18 Michael D. LaFaive and Ben Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), http://www.mackinac.org/7886.

19 Section 1990 of Part VII of the Education of Children with Exceptionalities Act, Louisiana State Legislature, Extraordinary Session 2005, Act No. 35 of 2005.

20 Ibid.

21 Kenneth P. May, "An Investigation into the Role of the Privatization of Non-Instructional Services Provided by New Jersey Public School Districts" (Ed.D. diss., Seton Hall, 1998), 53.

22 Daniel Himebaugh, "Preliminary Brief on Arizona Survey" (research memorandum, Reason Foundation, May 10, 2007). See also Matthew Piccolo, "Preliminary Brief on Florida Survey: Contracting School Services" (research memorandum, Reason Foundation, May 4, 2007).

23 "Dollars & Cents: How Outsourcing Can Save Money for Alabama Schools," (Alabama Policy Institute, 2002), 9, www.alabamapolicy.org/pdf/outsourcingstudy.pdf (accessed June 5, 2007).

24 LaFaive and Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow."

25 Howell Wechsler et al., "Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000," Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 319.

26 Howell Wechsler, e-mail correspondence with Michael LaFaive, April 19, 2007.

27 May, "An Investigation into the Role of the Privatization of Non-Instructional Services Provided by New Jersey Public School Districts," 59.

28 "School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies," (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1996), 5, www.gao.gov/archive/1996/rc96217.pdf (accessed April 17, 2007).

29 "Subcontracting in the Public Schools Update 2002," (New Jersey School Boards Association, 2002), 24.

30 "School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies," 5.

31 "Compass Group: Our Company," www.compass-group.com/OurCompany/default.htm (accessed May 28, 2007).

32 Ernest Farmer, Accent on Safety: A History of the National Conferences on School Transportation 1939-85 (Tennessee Department of Education, 1990).

33 Robin Leeds, e-mail correspondence with Michael LaFaive, May 2, 2007.

34 Ibid.

35 "Resources," Connecticut School Transportation Association, www.ctschoolbus.org/resources.htm (accessed May 10, 2007).

36 Leeds.

37 Ibid.

38 Joe Agron, "Keeping It Close to Home," (American School & University, 2001), 28, http://images.asumag.com/files/134/109as23.pdf.

39 May, "An Investigation into the Role of the Privatization of Non-Instructional Services Provided by New Jersey Public School Districts", 57.

40 "Dollars & Cents: How Outsourcing Can Save Money for Alabama Schools," 9.

41 LaFaive and Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow."xe "LaFaive, Michael D."

42 Himebaugh, "Preliminary Brief on Arizona Survey."

43 Piccolo, "Preliminary Brief on Florida Survey: Contracting School Services."

44 Bruce Hutchinson and Leila Pratt, "The Comparative Cost of Privatized Public School Transportation in Tennessee," Policy Studies Journal 27, no. 3 (1999).

45 Ibid.: 1.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Bruce Hutchinson and Leila Pratt, "The Comparative Cost of Public School Transportation in Louisiana" February, 2006).

49 Thomas McMahon, "The Big Get Bigger," School Bus Fleet, June/July 2006, 45, (accessed May 10, 2007).

50 Steve Hirano, e-mail correspondence with Michael LaFaive, May 3, 2007.

51 ———, telephone conversation with Michael LaFaive, April 30, 2007.

52 Ibid.

53 Ibid.

54 Leeds.

55 McMahon, "The Big Get Bigger."

56 "Laidlaw Education Services," www.laidlawschoolbus.com/ (accessed May 2, 2007).

57 Ibid.

58 Sherri Rodeheffer, telephone conversation with Michael LaFaive, May 2, 2007.

59 Agron, "Keeping It Close to Home," 28.

60 LaFaive and Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow."xe "LaFaive, Michael D."

61 Barry D. Yost, "Privatization of Educational Services by Contractual Agreement in Virginia Public Schools" (Ed.D. diss., Virginia Polytechnic University, 2000), ii.

62 Ibid., 59.

63 Himebaugh, "Preliminary Brief on Arizona Survey."

64 Piccolo, "Preliminary Brief on Florida Survey: Contracting School Services."

65 "About BSCAI," Building Service Contractors Association International, www.bscai.org/about/default.asp (accessed June 5, 2007).

66 LaFaive and Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow."

67 Ibid.

68 Janet Beales, "Doing More With Less: Competitive Contracting for School Support Services," (Reason Foundation, 1994), www.mackinac.org/246.

69 James Quinn and Frederick Hilmer, "Strategic Outsourcing," Sloan Management Review (1994).

70 Ibid.

71 Kirsten Lundberg, "Private Food Service in Houston's Public Schools? Rod Paige's School-Reform Campaign and the Outsourcing Controversy," (Cambridge: John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2001).

72 ———, "Private Food Service in Houston's Public Schools: Epilogue," (Cambridge: John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2001).

73 Ibid.

74 MCL § 388.1705.

75 MCL § 388.1705c.

76 Michigan Education Report, "DPS Enrollment Down by Thousands," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), www.educationreport.org/8237 (accessed May 10, 2007).

77 Michael LaFaive and Michael Hicks, "Demography Is Destiny," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), www.mackinac.org/7529.

78 Ibid.

79 Ibid.

80 "Michigan Job Loss Streak Is Longest since Great Depression," (University of Michigan News Service, 2006), www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/releases/story.php?id=1069 (accessed April 30, 2007).

81 Ibid.

82 Wortley and Summers-Coty, "Consensus Revenue Estimates for FY 2006-07 and FY 2007-08 and School Aid Foundation Allowance Index Estimate for FY 2007-08," 3.

83 Ibid.

84 Kirk Sanderson, "Revenue Changes and Retirement Costs in the Public School Employees' Retirement System," (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2006), 2, www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Publications/Notes/2006Notes/ notesjulaug06ks.pdf (accessed May 3, 2007).

85 Ibid., 6.

86 "Financing Michigan Retired Teacher Pension and Health Care Benefits," (Citizens Research Council of Michigan, 2004), 8, www.crcmich.org/PUBLICAT/2000s/2004/rpt337.pdf.

87 MCL § 423.211.

88 MCL § 423.215(3); MCL § 423.215(3)(f).

89 John A. Bourbeau, "Has Outsourcing/Contracting Out Saved Money and/or Improved Service Quality? A Vote Counting-Analysis" (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2004).

90 LaFaive and Stafford, "Survey 2006: School Outsourcing Continues to Grow."xe "LaFaive, Michael D."

91 Brandon Hall, "How to Develop Your Request for Proposal," (Brandon Hall Research, 2002), www.brandon-hall.com, (accessed May 22, 2007).

92 Ibid.

93 Amy J. Christman, correspondence with parties interested in submitting proposals to Gobles Public Schools for cleaning services, May 25, 2005.

94 Ibid.

95 Samuel Flam and William Keane, Public Schools Private Enterprises: What You Should Know and Do About Privatization (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2002), 109-10.

96 "School Purchasing Pages Custodial RFP," (School Purchasing Pages, 2007), 11, www.schoolpurchasingpages.org/staticcontent/doclibrary/ CustodialServicesContract-RFP.pdf (accessed May 22, 2007).

97 "Agreement to Provide Student Transportation Services," (Tecumseh: Tecumseh Public Schools, 2006).

98 Beales, "Doing More With Less: Competitive Contracting for School Support Services," 14.

99 Angela E. Lackey, "MPS Cuts Run Deep: Custodian, Food Service and Teaching Jobs Affected by Action," Midland Daily News, May 15, 2007, www.ourmidland.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=18342784&BRD=2289&PAG=461&dept_id=472542&rfi=6.