1. The Report of the Detroit Strategic Planning Project, November 1987, p. 1.

  2. Ibid., p. 1.

  3. Ibid., p. 43.

  4. James Skillen, "Religion and Education Policy: Where do we go from here?" Journal of Law and Politics, Spring 1990, Volume VI, No. 3, p. 503. See also C. Glen, The Myth of the Common School (1988).

  5. William A. Donohue, "Why Schools Fail: Reclaim the Moral Dimension of Education," Heritage Foundation Lecture 172, (Summer 1988), p. 4.

  6. Dwight R. Lee, "An Alternative to the Public School: Education Vouchers," Inter­collegiate Review, (Spring 1986), p. 30. See also "Verbal Skills Slid As SAT Scores Fall," The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1990, pp. 81 and 83.

  7. Michigan State Board of Education. Bulletin 1014 for 1988-1989. This is based on current operating expenditures per pupil.

  8. Statistical Abstract of United States, 1990, p. 472.

  9. Michigan State Board of Education, Bulletin 1014 for 1988-1989.

  10. Ibid. See also, "Oak Park Schools Under Fire," The Detroit Free Press, June 22, 1990, p. 38.

  11. Eric Hanushek, "The Impact of Differential Expenditures on School Performance," Educational Researcher, May 1987.

  12. The Detroit Free Press, November 25, 1990, p. 2F.

  13. Ibid. It should be noted that disparity in per-pupil expenditures within the Detroit public school system itself is quite large. For example, per-pupil spending at Murray-Wright High is 39°,'0 of per pupil spending at Denby High. See The Detroit News, March 26, 1991 p. 6A.

  14. James D. Gwartney, CATO Journal, Volume 10, No. 1, (Spring/Summer 1990), p. 159. See also, "It's Education's Turn to Restructure," Publication #91, Center for the Study of American Business, Washington University, April 1989.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Ibid., pp. 162, 163.

  17. Valerie E. Lee and Carolee Stewart, "1985-86 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Proficiency in mathematics and science, Catholic and public schools compared," University of Michigan, November 15, 1988, p. 46.

  18. Ibid., p.43.

  19. Phil Keisling, The Great School Debate, edited by Beatrice & Ronald Gross, Simon & Schuster, report on Dr. Coleman study, p. 458.

  20. Hanushek, The Educational Researcher.

  21. The Detroit News, April 10, 1989, p. 8A.

  22. Hanushek, The Educational Researcher.

  23. Michigan State Board of Education, Bulletin 1014 for 1988-89 and Bulletin 1013 for 1985-86.

  24. Harry Hutchison, "Better Schools: Let Competition Heat Up," The Detroit News, August 22, 1990, p. 15A. See also, Public Choice and Constitutional Economics, James Gwartney and Richard Wagner, "Public Choice and the Conduct of Representative Government," edited by Gwartney and Wagner, Cato Institute and Jai Press, 1988, p. 15.

  25. Report prepared by Detroit Public School District (DS-4061- A-LEA) for Michigan Department of Education pages 3 and 4, received December 14, 1988. (Our source, Citizens Research Council).

  26. The Detroit News, April 10, 1989, p. 8A.

  27. Ibid.

  28. Mary Raynid, Parental Choice: The Solution for the Education of our Children, tran­script of the New England Educational Summit, Yankee Institute, October 18, 1988, pp. 54-57.

  29. Ibid., p. 55 and 56.

  30. K. Alan Snyder, Critical Issues: A New Agenda for Education, edited by Eileen M. Gardner, The Heritage Foundation, 1985, p. 13.

  31. 403 U.S. 602, 625 (1971), (Douglas, J. Concurring) cited in Skillen, p. 504.

  32. James Dobson and Gary L. Bauer, Children at Risk, Word Publishing, 1990, p. 36.

  33. K. Alan Snyder, p. 14.

  34. K. Alan Snyder, p. 16. See also, the advisory panel on Financing Elementary and Secondary Education's comments on the school finance project, prepared by Vituilo-Martin Consultants, April 29,1984 (available from the Chairman's office, Free Congress Foundation, 721 Second Street, N.E., Washington D.C. 20002).

  35. DQEP Proposed Policy on Empowerment & Schools of Choice, July 18, 1990, p. 5.

  36. The Detroit News, November 26, 1990, p. 8A.

  37. Myron Lieberman, Privatization & Educational Choice, St. Martins Press, (1989), p.150.

  38. James W. Skillen, p. 503.

  39. Milton and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose, Avon Book,,, (1979), pp. 161-162.

  40. Walberg, Bakalis, Bast, Baer, We Can Rescue Our Children, Heartland Institute, (1988), p. 89.

  41. Ibid., pp. 89-103.

  42. Ibid.

  43. David T. Kearns and Dennis Doyle, Winning The Brain Race, ICS Press, (1988), p. 16.

  44. Stephen D. Sugarman, "Using Private Schools to Promote Public Values", working paper no. 18, Earl Warren Legal Institute, School of Law, University of California at Berkley, November 28, (Draft), p. 5.

  45. Ibid., p. 4.

  46. Ibid., p. 5.

  47. See James Buchanan, "The Contractarian Logic of Classical Liberalism" Bowling Green University, Social Philosophy Center Conference, October 20. 1988 and Richard Posner, Economic Analysis of Law, Little Brown & Company, 1986.

  48. Sugarman, pp. 6 and 7.

  49. Skillen, p. 504.

  50. Ibid., p. 510

  51. Barry N. Poulson, "Education and the Family During the Industrial Revolution", The American Family and the State, Edited by Pepen and Gladhe, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, (1986), p. 152.

  52. Skillen, p.511.

  53. Ibid.

  54. Ibid.

  55. Poulson, p. 153.

  56. Ibid., p. 154.

  57. Ibid.

  58. Ibid., pp. 157 and 158.

  59. Meek v. Pittenger, 421 U.S. 349 (1974), at p. 395 (Rehnquist, Concurring in the Judgment in part, dissenting in part).

  60. Ibid., p. 395.

  61. Skillen, p. 512.

  62. Thomas R. Ascik, "The Courts and Education", Critical Issues: A New Agenda for Education, Edited by Eileen Gardner, The Heritage Foundation, (1985), p. 63.

  63. Sugarman, p. 13.

  64. Skillen, p. 515.

  65. Sugarman, p. 13.

  66. Of some relevance is recent litigation concerning The Equal Access Act. In Board of Education v. Mergens, 110 S. Ct. 23-56 (1990), Justice O'Connor's plurality opinion resting on the logic ofWidmar v. Vincent 454 U.S. 263 (1981) concluded that the equal access policy has a secular purpose--prevention of discrimination against religious and other types of speech. See Richard R. Duncan, "Religious Civil rights in Public Access", Indiana Law Review,vol., 24, No. 1 pp. 111 at 123 and 124, (1>91). See also Michael W. McConnell, "Free Exercise Revisionism and the Smith Decision", The University of Chicago Law Review, vol, 57, p. 1109, ('1990) and Michael W. McConnell and Richard A. Posner, "An Economic Approach to Issue of Religious Freedom", The University of Chicago Law Review, vol. 56. p. 1 (1989).

  67. Gwartney and Wagner, p. 25.

  68. McConnell and Posner, p. 11.

  69. Sugarman, p. 7.

  70. McConnell and Posner, p. 11.

  71. Sugarman, p. 7.

  72. Sugarman, see pp. 7-10.

  73. Times, p. 3A, 1990.

  74. Carol Innerst, p. 3A.

  75. The Detroit News, July 17, 1990, p. 8A.

  76. Joan Richardson, "Public Problem Private Solution," The Detroit Free Press, November 18, 1990, p. 1G.

  77. Joan Richardson, pp. 1G and 4G.

  78. Lonzetta Davis et al v. Herbert J. Grover, Judge Steingass; decision and order Case No. 90 CV 2576, August 6, 1990. Circuit Court Branch 8, State of Wisconsin.

  79. Joan Richardson, p. 4G.

  80. Sugarman, p. 15.

  81. Warren Brookes, "Education Reform: Time to Go Dutch," The Detroit News, June 7, 1990, p. 15A.

  82. Patrick J. Keleher, St. Croix Review, October 1990, Volume XXIII, No. _5, pp. 9-18.

  83. Robert Woodson, Parental Choice: The Solution for the Education of Our Children, transcript of the New England Educational Summit, Yankee Institute, October 18, 1988, p. 71.

  84. The Report of the Detroit Strategic Planning Project, p. 45.

  85. For additional insights on the value of private education see Philip K. Porter and Michael L. Davis, "The Value of Private Property in Education: Innovation, Production, and Employment," Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 397-426 (1991).

  86. Myron Lieberman, Beyond Public Education, Praeger Publishers, (1986), p. 186.

  87. See Ron Russell, "30% of Detroit Seniors Fail Basic Skills Tests," The Detroit News. May 17, 1991, p. 1A.