1  “Ballot Language of Proposal 12-5,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2012), http://goo.gl/jXURb (accessed October 19, 2012).

2  Mich Const 1963, Art 9, § 3.

3  “Initiatives and Referendums Under the Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1963,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2010), 9, http://goo.gl/C94OY (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

4  Steven Deller and Judith I. Stallmann, “Tax and Expenditure Limitations and Economic Growth,” (Marquette Law Review, 2006), 501, http://goo.gl/PL4iX (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

5  Bing Yuan et al., “Tax Expenditure Limitations and Their Effects on Local Public Finances,” 2007), 6, http://goo.gl/1Pz0J (accessed October 20, 2012).

6  California Const, Art 13A, §§ 1-7; Stephen Moore, “Proposition 13 Then, Now and Forever,” (Cato Institute, July 30, 1998), http://goo.gl/JcmCP (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

7  California Const, Art 13A, §§ 1-7.

8  “Initiatives and Referendums Under the Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1963,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2010), 4, http://goo.gl/C94OY (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

9  Lawrence W. Reed, “The Headlee Amendment: Serving Michigan for 25 Years,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2003), http://www.mackinac.org/5574 (accessed Oct. 21, 2012); John E. Nixon, “State of Michigan: Statement of the Proportion of Total State Spending From State Sources Paid to Units of Local Government,” (State of Michigan, 2012), 7, http://goo.gl/O7goL (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

10 Missouri Const 1945, Art 9, § 16.

11 Colorado Const, Art 10, § 20. See also Kenneth M. Braun, “The Stop Overspending Michigan Initiative: A Review and Analysis,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), 8, http://goo.gl/o9DDF (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

12 Bert Waisanen, “State Tax and Expenditure Limits -- 2010,” (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2010), http://goo.gl/4uRYj (accessed Oct. 21, 2012).

13 Suho Bae and Thomas Gais, “The Effects of State-Level Tax and Expenditure Limitations on Revenues and Expenditures,” (The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, 2007), 5, http://goo.gl/oXN9J (accessed Oct. 21, 2012).

14 Ibid., 6.

15 Ibid., 7.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid., 6.

18 Ibid., 1.

19 Michael J. New, “Limiting Government through Direct Democracy: The Case of State Tax and Expenditure Limitations,” (The Cato Institute, 2001), 8, http://goo.gl/PLzMj (accessed Oct. 20, 2012).

20 Ibid., 10.

21 Ibid., 1.

22 Edward Hill et al., “A Review of Tax Expenditure Limitations and their Impact on State and Local Government in Ohio,” (Cleveland State University, 2006), 13, http://goo.gl/cj607 (accessed Oct. 20, 2012).

23 Brian G. Knight, “Supermajority voting requirements for tax increases: evidence from the states,” (Journal of Public Economics, 2000), 41, http://goo.gl/ZwAQc (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid., 61.

26 Meagan M. Jordan and Kim U. Hoffman, “The Revenue Impact of State Legislative Supermajority Voting Requirements,” (Midsouth Political Science Review, 2009), 13, http://goo.gl/4LebZ (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

27 Ibid., 7.

28 John Charles Bradbury and Joseph M. Johnson, “Do supermajority rules limit or enhance majority tyranny?: Evidence from the US States, 1960–1997,” Public Choice 127, no. 3/4 (2006): 437.

29 Ibid., 444.

30 Timothy Besley and Anne Case, “Political Institutions and Policy Choices: Evidence from the United States,” (Journal of Economic Literature, 2003), 7, http://goo.gl/e3Do0 (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

31 Ibid., 48.

32 Ibid., 47-48.

33 Scott Drenkard and Joseph Henchman, “2013 State Business Tax Climate Index,” (Tax Foundation, 2013), 5-8, http://goo.gl/LfbGN (accessed Oct. 20, 2012).

34 Ibid., 8.

35 Ibid.

36 Barry W. Poulson and Jules Gordon Kaplan, “State Income Taxes and Economic Growth,” Cato Journal 28, no. 1 (2008): 53 http://goo.gl/dPhPm (accessed Oct. 25, 2012).

37 W. Robert Reed, “The Robust Relationship Between Taxes and State Economic Growth,” (University of Canterbury, 2006), 20, http://goo.gl/wEZty (accessed June 9, 2010).

38 Ibid., 8.

39 Deller and Stallmann, “Tax and Expenditure Limitations and Economic Growth,” (Marquette Law Review, 2006), 531, http://goo.gl/PL4iX (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

40 Ibid., 536.

41 Deller and Stallmann, “Tax and Expenditure Limitations and Economic Growth,” (Marquette Law Review, 2006), 536, http://goo.gl/PL4iX (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

42 “Michigan’s Major Taxes: Revenue Estimates, Tax Rates, and Yields for FY 2010-11 & FY 2011-12,” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2011), http://goo.gl/ABjXT (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

43 “2004 Senate Bill 1111: Advance due-date for county tax collections: Public Act 356 of 2004,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2004), Michigan Votes, http://goo.gl/UKgBP (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

44 Jack McHugh, “Spending Fix?,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Oct. 25, 2004), http://www.mackinac.org/6869 (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

45 Jay Wortley and David Zin, “MBT: Surcharge & Credits (H.B. 5408 (S-4)),” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2007), http://goo.gl/cbGQu (accessed Oct. 24, 2012); Jay Wortley, “Income Tax Rate Increase (H.B. 5194: Enacted Summary),” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2007), http://goo.gl/GugmI (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

46 Jennifer M. Granholm and Robert L. Emerson, “Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2008,” (Department of Management and Budget, 2007), A-3, A-4, http://goo.gl/5TTl9 (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

47 “2007 House Bill 5194: Increase income tax from 3.9 percent to 4.35 percent (House Roll Call 441),” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), Michigan Votes, http://goo.gl/tpdQA (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

48 Ken Braun, “The Year of Living Expensively,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Feb. 7, 2008), http://www.michigancapitol confidential.com/9270 (accessed Oct. 24, 2012); “Ten of 17 budget bills for fiscal 2008 spent more money than was enacted for those same budgets in fiscal 2007,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), http://goo.gl/L1pya (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

49 “Benefits in Balance,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy), http://www.mackinac.org/14521 (accessed Oct. 20, 2012).

50 Jack McHugh, “Replacing Michigan’s New Taxes With Budget Reductions: Curing $1.358 Billion in Overspending With 55 Specific Recommendations,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), http://goo.gl/WQFtw (accessed Oct. 24, 2012); Michael D. LaFaive, Project Manager, “Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2004), http://goo.gl/0Rq9I (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

51 Author’s calculations based on “Regional Data: GDP & Personal Income,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2012), Real GDP, http://goo.gl/B6ZMU (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

52 “2007 House Bill 5194: Increase income tax from 3.9 percent to 4.35 percent: Public Act 94 of 2007,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), Michigan Votes, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2007-HB-5194 (accessed Oct. 25, 2012).

53 David Zin and Elizabeth Pratt, “Tax Restructuring: H.B. 4361, 4362, & 4479, Summary as Enacted,” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2011), 8, http://goo.gl/DFKjA (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

54 Kail Padgitt and Alex Wood-Doughty, “Michigan Gov. Snyder’s Budget Improves Competitiveness but Costs Individuals,” (Tax Foundation, March 9, 2011), http://goo.gl/t0m2O (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

55 “Initiatives and Referendums Under the Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1963,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2010), 9, http://goo.gl/C94OY (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

56 “Local Area Unemployment Statistics: Unemployment Rates for States,” (United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012), http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/laumstrk.htm (accessed Oct. 23, 2012); “Regional Data: GDP & Personal Income,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2012), Annual State Personal Income and Employment: Personal income, per capita personal income, disposable personal income, and population (SA1-3, SA51-53), http://goo.gl/B6ZMU (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

57 See, for instance, Phil Oliff, Chris Mai and Vincent Palacios, “States Continue to Feel Recession’s Impact,” (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2012), http://goo.gl/q5U8J (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

58 Waisanen, “State Tax and Expenditure Limits -- 2010,” (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2010), http://goo.gl/4uRYj (accessed Oct. 21, 2012).

59 “Regional Data: GDP & Personal Income,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2012), Annual State Personal Income and Employment: Personal income, per capita personal income, disposable personal income, and population (SA1-3, SA51-53), http://goo.gl/B6ZMU (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

60 Ibid.; Waisanen, “State Tax and Expenditure Limits -- 2010,” (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2010), http://goo.gl/4uRYj (accessed Oct. 21, 2012).

61 “Local Area Unemployment Statistics,” (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012), Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) One-Screen Database, http://www.bls.gov/lau/ (accessed Oct. 24, 2012); “Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey,” (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012), Labor Force Statistics Including the National Unemployment Rate (Current Population Survey - CPS) One-Screen Database, http://www.bls.gov/cps/ (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

62 Waisanen, “State Tax and Expenditure Limits -- 2010,” (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2010), http://goo.gl/4uRYj (accessed Oct. 21, 2012).

63 Paul Mackun and Steven Wilson, “Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010,” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011), 2, http://goo.gl/TpY9k (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

64 Juliet Musso, Elizabeth Graddy and Jennifer Grizard, “State Budgetary Processes and Reforms: The California Story,” Public Budgeting and Finance, Winter 2006: 20. .

65 Ibid., 18.

66 Ibid., 4.

67 Kenneth M. Braun, “An Analysis of Proposal 5: The ‘K-16’ Michigan Ballot Measure,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), http://goo.gl/JYs3z (accessed Oct. 23, 2012).

68 “Initiatives and Referendums Under the Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1963,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2010), 14, http://goo.gl/C94OY (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

69 Shikha Dalmia, Adam Summers and Adrian Moore, “Don’t Blame Voters for California’s Budget Woes,” (Reason Foundation, Oct. 9, 2009), http://goo.gl/fHw65 (accessed Oct. 23, 2012).

70 Musso, Graddy and Grizard, “State Budgetary Processes and Reforms: The California Story,” Public Budgeting and Finance, Winter 2006: 19.

71 Dalmia, Summers and Moore, “Don’t Blame Voters for California’s Budget Woes,” (Reason Foundation, Oct. 9, 2009), http://goo.gl/ fHw65 (accessed Oct. 23, 2012).

72 Ibid.

73 Ibid.; Adam B. Summers, “California Spending by the Numbers: A Historic Look at State Spending from Gov. Pete Wilson to Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger,” (Reason Foundation, 2009), 13, http://goo.gl/ 5SfMd (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

74 Summers, “California Spending by the Numbers: A Historic Look at State Spending from Gov. Pete Wilson to Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger,” (Reason Foundation, 2009), http://goo.gl/5SfMd (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

75 Roger Martin, “Vote ‘NO’ on ‘Super-Minority’ Constitutional Amendment in November: Remember Unlucky No. 13!,” (Defend Michigan Democracy, 2012), http://goo.gl/uM4Kx (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

76 Mich Const 1963, Art 9, § 29-30.

77 Mich Const 1963, Art 9, § 29.

78 Const 1963, Art 9, § 31.

79 John E. Nixon, “State of Michigan: Statement of Revenue Subject to Constitutional Limitation,” (State of Michigan, 2012), 4, http://goo.gl/s81kk (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

80 Braun, “The Stop Overspending Michigan Initiative: A Review and Analysis,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), 1, http://goo.gl/o9DDF (accessed Oct. 22, 2012).

81 Salim Furth, “Forecast: Taxmageddon Would Cause Another Recession,” (The Heritage Foundation, July 7, 2012), http://goo.gl/j44ps (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

82 Ibid.

83 Stephen Ohlemacher, “Psst, taxes go up in 2013 for 163 million workers,” (My Way (Associated Press), 2012), http://goo.gl/DzGZ0 (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).

84 Jack McHugh, “Nation’s Highest Gas Tax Coming To Michigan?,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Feb. 2, 2012), http://www.mackinac.org/16407 (accessed Oct. 24, 2012).