1   “A petition for a referendum election to repeal Public Act 4 of 2011,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2012), http://goo.gl/eFXzh (accessed Oct. 17, 2012). Public Act 4 of 2011.

2   “Public Act 4,” (Michigan Legislature, 2011), Section 3, http://goo.gl/r5qnX (accessed April 26, 2012).

3   Ibid.

4   See, for instance, Bill Schuette, “Opinion #7267,” (Michigan Attorney General, Aug. 6, 2012),  http://goo.gl/JiET5 (accessed Oct. 9, 2012).

5   “A petition for a referendum election to repeal Public Act 4 of 2011,” (Michigan Secretary of State, 2012), http://goo.gl/eFXzh (accessed Oct. 17, 2012).

6   David Sands, “Brandon Jessup Says Public Act 4 Must Be Repealed For Michigan To Truly Focus On Urban Policy,”(The Huffington Post, 2012), http://goo.gl/DVhnR (accessed July 23, 2012).

7   Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992),  http://www.mackinac.org/5594 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

8   Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992),  http://www.mackinac.org/5596 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

9   Bob Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5602.

10 Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5603 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

11 Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5604.

12 Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5607 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

13 Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5610 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

14 Petitpren v Taylor School District, 104 Mich Ct App 283 (1981).

15 Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5615 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

16 Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5618 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012): Robert Daddow, “Ecorse: The Fall and Rise of a Michigan City,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 1, 1992), http://www.mackinac.org/5613 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).

17 “Senate Committee Reports Part of Wayne County Package,” Gongwer News Service, Dec. 15, 1987.

18 Senate Journal 1990, 1013, 2781, House Journal 1990, 5966.

19 Gongwer News Service, “Committee Approves Financially-Troubled School Measure,” 1989).

20 Michael W. McConnell and Randal C. Picker, “When Cities Go Broke: A Conceptual Introduction to Municipal Bankruptcy,” University of Chicago Law Review Spring 1993.

21 Const 1963, Art 9, § 24.

22 “Central Falls’ Plan of Debt Adjustment,” (United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Rhode Island, 2011), http://goo.gl/fQ6In (accessed July 13, 2012).

23 McConnell and Picker, “When Cities Go Broke: A Conceptual Introduction to Municipal Bankruptcy,” University of Chicago Law Review Spring 1993.

24 Ibid.

25 Public Act 4 of 2011, Section 23(1).

26 MCL § 141.1222(1), MCL § 141.1241(3).

27 McConnell and Picker, “When Cities Go Broke: A Conceptual Introduction to Municipal Bankruptcy,” University of Chicago Law Review Spring 1993.

28 Ibid.

29 Public Act 72 of 1990, Section 21(1)(l).

30 Public Act 4 of 2011, Section 23(1).

31 Caitlin Devitt, “Hamtramck, Mich., Officials Hope to Keep Bankruptcy Idea Alive,” The Bond Buyer, Nov. 18, 2010, http://goo.gl/Ll5zW (accessed July 2, 2012).

32 Genevieve Nolan and David Levett, “Suspending Michigan’s Emergency Manager Law Would Be Credit Negative for Distressed Local Governments,”(Moody’s Investors Service, 2012).

33 See Const 1963, Art 7, §§ 1-34.

34 See especially MCL chapters 41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 61-75, 78, 79, 81-113, 115, 117, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 131-139, 141, 380, 388, and 397.

35 MCL § 141.921.

36 MCL § 388.1701.

37 MCL § 141.921(2), MCL § 388.1701(5).

38 MCL § 141.921(2), MCL § 388.1701(1).

39 Harlan Goodrich, State Treasury Department, email correspondence with Josiah Kollmeyer, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, July 3, 2012.

40 “City of Allen Park Deficit Elimination Plan,” (City of Allen Park, 2012).

41 Rick Snyder, Governor of Michigan, letter correspondence with Mayor of Allen Park William Matakas and the Allen Park City Council, Sept. 7, 2012.

42 MCL § 141.934(1)(a); MCL § 141.935.

43 MCL § 141.934(1)(d).

44 MCL § 141.937(1)(a).

45 MCL § 141.937(1)(c).

46 MCL § 141.937(1)(b),(d),(e),(f),(g).

47 Harlan Goodrich, State Treasury Department, email correspondence with Josiah Kollmeyer, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, July 13, 2012.

48 MCL §§ 141.1001-141.1011.

49 Public Act 4 of 2011, Section 19(1)(k).

50 Public Act 4 of 2011, Section 19(1)(k)(i)-(iv).

51 Treasury Department letters of determination received by the James Hohman via email on July 13, 2012.

52 Michael LaFaive, “Pontiac’s Fiscal Revolution,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), http://www.mackinac.org/16772.

53 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (State Treasurer Andy Dillon’s five letters of determination to Pontiac Emergency Manager Louis Schimmel on 4/24/2012 and 4/25/2012), July 19, 2012.

54 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (Flint Emergency Manager Mike Brown’s letters to State Treasurer Andy Dillon on 4/23/2012), July 19, 2012.

55 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (Flint Emergency Manager Mike Brown’s letters to State Treasurer Andy Dillon on 4/23/2012), July 19, 2012.

56 Rick C. Dreyfuss, “Michigan’s Public-Employee Retirement Benefits: Benchmarking and Managing Benefits and Costs,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), 12, http://goo.gl/ukNPw (accessed Oct. 17, 2012).

57 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (Detroit Public Schools Emergency Manager Roy Roberts’ 12 letters to State Treasurer Andy Dillon on 6/23/2011 or 6/26/2012 regarding nonteaching personnel), July 19, 2012.

58 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (Detroit Public Schools Emergency Manager Roy Roberts’ letter to State Treasurer Andy Dillon on 6/23/2011 regarding teaching personnel), July 19, 2012.

59 Caleb Buhs, Michigan Department of Treasury, email correspondence with James Hohman (Detroit Public Schools Emergency Manager Roy Roberts’ letter to State Treasurer Andy Dillon on 6/23/2011 regarding teaching personnel), July 19, 2012.

60 Patrick J. Wright et al., “Proposal 2 of 2012: An Assessment,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), 11-16, http://goo.gl/Bihc2 (accessed Oct. 15, 2012).