1   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(5).

2   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(4).

3    Ibid.

4   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(a).

5   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(b).

6   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(c).

7   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(4).

8   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(d).

9   Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(4).

10 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(3).

11 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(3)(a).

12 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(3)(a).

13 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(3)(b)-(c).

14  Ibid.

15  Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(4).

16  Caroline M. Sallee, “The Role of MQC3 and Home Help: Serving Michigan’s Long-Term Care Population,” (Anderson Economic Group, 2011), 10, http://goo.gl/1dD5b (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

17  Olmstead v L.C., 527 US 581 (1999).

18 Olmstead v L.C., 527 US 581, 601 (1999).

19  Director James B. Hennessey, Michigan Department of Community Health Office of Audit, “Department of Community Health Audit of the Medicaid Home Help Program,” (Michigan Department of Community Health, 2005), 1, http://goo.gl/Fn808 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

20  Bradley Geller, “Medicaid and Long Term Care,” (Michigan State Long Term Care Ombudsman Program, undated), 11, http://goo.gl/ jas4J (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

21  Ibid.

22  “Meeting of the Board of State Canvassers, August 27, 2012,” (Michigan Department of State, 2012), 5, http://goo.gl/V03yQ (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

23  Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(5).

24 2012 Public Act 45 and 2012 Public Act 76. See also Patrick
J. Wright, “Haynes and Glossop v SEIU and MQC3, Brief in Support of Charge of Unfair Labor Practice,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), 10-12, 30-36, http://goo.gl/z4fH7 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

25 SEIU Healthcare Michigan v Snyder, Case No. 12-cv-12332 (ED Mich.) Order of June 22, 2012.

26  “National Labor Relations Board: Jurisdictional Standards,” (National Labor Relations Board),  http://goo.gl/nFbbh (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

27 USCA § 152(2). Ibid.; Director Stephen Fitton, Medical Services Administration, Department of Community Health, “Taxability of Adult Home Help/Adult Foster Care Payments,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Department of Community Health), 2011), 1, http://goo.gl/6CQlt (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

28  Const 1963, Article 11, Section 5.

29 “Tabulation of Election Results, Michigan Quality Community Care Council (MQCCC) and Service Employees International Union, AFL-CIO,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Bureau of Employment Relations, Labor Relations Division), 2005), 2, (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

30 MCL §§ 124.501-512.

31  “Interlocal Agreement Creating the Washtenaw Fire and Rescue Department,” (Village of Dexter, 2012), http://goo.gl/NyXlg (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

32 “Charter of the Lansing Tri-County Aging Consortium,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Tri-County Aging Consortium), 1974), 1, 6-7, http://goo.gl/qhdWq (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

33 “Interlocal Agreement Betweeen the Department of Community Health and the Tri-County Aging Consortium Creating the Michigan Quality Community Care Council,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2004), 2, 7, http://goo.gl/ RThx5 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

34 Ibid., 20, Section 6.11.

35 Ibid., 17, Section 6.03.

36 “Transfer Agreement Between the Department of Community Health and the Michigan Quality Community Care Council,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Department of Community Health), 2004), 3, Section IV:2, http://goo.gl/DkaJA (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

37 “Petition for Representation Proceedings,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Employment Relations Commission, Labor Relations Division), 2005), 1, http://goo.gl/YCCkb (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

38 “Addendum to Consent Election Agreement,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2005), 2, No. 6, http://goo.gl/sWxKo (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

39 Author’s calculations based on “Petition for Representation Proceedings,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Employment Relations Commission, Labor Relations Division), 2005), http://goo.gl/YCCkb (accessed Oct. 4, 2012); “Tabulation of Election Results, Michigan Quality Community Care Council (MQCCC) and Service Employees International Union, AFL-CIO,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Bureau of Employment Relations, Labor Relations Division), 2005), 2, http://goo.gl/YCCkb (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

40 “Certification of Representative,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Employment Relations Commission, Bureau of Employment Relations), 2005), 3, http://goo.gl/TPDyF (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

41 “Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Michigan Quality Community Care Council and Service Employees International Union, Local 79,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2006), 5-6, http://goo.gl/dsD57 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

42 Patrick J. Wright, “Sherry Loar, Michelle Berry and Paulette Silverson v. Michigan Department of Human Services: A Legal Brief to the Michigan Supreme Court,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://goo.gl/eqbT4 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012). See also “Sherry Loar, Michelle Berry and Paulette Silverson v. Michigan Department of Human Services,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009),  http://www.mackinac.org/11149 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

43 2012 PA 45, which amended MCL 423.201(1)(e), and 2012 PA 76, which amended MCL 423.201(1)(e)(i).

44 MCL § 423.201(1)(e)(i).

45 Public Act 76 of 2012, (Michigan Legislature, 2012), 1, http://goo.gl/6Tyg6 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

46 Susan Steinke, email correspondence with Michigan Quality Community Care Council Board of Trustees, April 9, 2012.

47 Susan Steinke, email correspondence with Michigan Quality Community Care Council Board of Trustees, Dec. 12, 2011, 3, http://goo.gl/5rJOA, (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); Susan Steinke, email correspondence with Board of Trustees, Feb. 2, 2012, 4, http://goo.gl/5rJOA, (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

48 Chief Legal Counsel Richard A. Bandstra, Michigan Department of the Attorney General, letter to State Rep. Paul Opsommer, May 24, 2012 (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (State of Michigan Department of Attorney General), 2012), http://goo.gl/tLb29 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

49 SEIU Healthcare Michigan v Snyder, Case No. 12-cv-12332 (ED Mich.)

50 SEIU Healthcare Michigan v Snyder, Case No. 12-cv-12332 (ED Mich.) Order of June 22, 2012.

51 “Charter of the Lansing Tri-County Aging Consortium,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Tri-County Aging Consortium), 1974), 1, http://goo.gl/qhdWq (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

52 “Interlocal Agreement Betweeen the Department of Community Health and the Tri-County Aging Consortium Creating the Michigan Quality Community Care Council,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2004), 7, Section 2.01(d), http://goo.gl/RThx5 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); “Tri-County Aging Consortium Administrative Board Meeting, April 19, 2004,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Tri-County Aging Consortium), 2004), 29-30, http://goo.gl/qhdWq (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

53 MCL §§ 423.201-217.

54 Const 1963, art 4, § 48.

55 29 USC § 152(3).

56 Wayne County Civil Service Commission v Board of Supervisors, 22 Mich App 287 (1970).

57 Wayne County Civil Service Commission v Board of Supervisors, 22 Mich App 287, 294 (1970).

58 “Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Michigan Quality Community Care Council and Service Employees International Union, Local 79,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2006), 2, http://goo.gl/dsD57 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012); “Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Michigan Quality Community Care Council and Service Employees International Union, Healthcare Michigan,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2009), 2, http://goo.gl/YFq97 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

59 “Addendum to Consent Election Agreement,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2005), 2, No. 6, http://goo.gl/sWxKo (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

60 Stephen Fitton, “Taxability of Adult Home Help/Adult Foster Care Payments,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Department of Community Health), 2011), http://goo.gl/6CQlt (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

61 Bradley Geller, “Medicaid and Long Term Care,” (Michigan State Long Term Care Ombudsman Program, undated), 11, http://goo.gl/ jas4J (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

62 MCL 423.201(1)(e)(i).

63 “Senate Subcomittee -- 5/4/10 -- Ruthanne Okun,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Department of Human Services), 2010), 3, http://goo.gl/nP6Dq (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

64 Kasper v Metropolitan Life Ins Co, 412 Mich 232, 244; 313 NW2d 904 (1981).

65 Michigan Employment Relations Commission Case No. C12 I-183 & CU12 I-042 (Patricia Haynes) and C12 I-184 & CU12 I-043 (Steven Glossop), Exhibit 20, http://goo.gl/UbsLl, (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

66 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(5).

67 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(5).

68 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(d).

69 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(1).

70 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(5).

71 Bradley Geller, “Medicaid and Long Term Care,”(Michigan State Long Term Care Ombudsman Program, undated), 10, http://goo.gl/ jas4J (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); “Successfully Employing Your Personal Assistants: A Workshop Series for People with Disabilities “, (State of Michigan, undated), 9, http://goo.gl/c2tk4 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); “Medical Assistance Home Help Provider Agreement,” (Michigan Department of Community Health, 2010), 2, http://goo.gl/ oMywJ (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); “Beneficiary Elgibility Bulletin: Health Care Eligibility Policy 04-07,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Department of Community Health), 2004), 1-2, http://goo.gl/E7cuU (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); “Frequently Asked Questions,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2012), http://goo.gl/T4Cp1 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

72 James B. Hennessey, “Department of Community Health Audit of the Medicaid Home Help Program,” (Michigan Department of Community Health, 2005), 3, http://goo.gl/Fn808 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

73 Caroline M. Sallee, “The Role of MQC3 and Home Help: Serving Michigan’s Long-Term Care Population,” (Anderson Economic Group, 2011), 2, http://goo.gl/1dD5b (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

74 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(b).

75 “Frequently Asked Questions,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), 2012), http://goo.gl/ T4Cp1 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

76 Caroline M. Sallee, “The Role of MQC3 and Home Help:
Serving Michigan’s Long-Term Care Population,” (Anderson Economic Group, 2011), 2, http://goo.gl/1dD5b (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); Patrick J. Wright, phone call with Deborah R. Garcia, Michigan Department of Community Health.

77 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(c).

78 See, for instance, Stephen Fitton, “Taxability of Adult Home Help/Adult Foster Care Payments,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Department of Community Health), 2011), http://goo.gl/ 6CQlt (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); James B. Hennessey, “Department of Community Health Audit of the Medicaid Home Help Program,” (Michigan Department of Community Health, 2005), 34-36, http://goo.gl/Fn808 (accessed Oct. 4, 2012).

79 Proposal 4 of 2012, Article 5, Section 31(2)(a).

80 “Welcome to the QC3: Introductory Session & Application,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (Michigan Quality Community Care Council), undated), 9, http://goo.gl/u78rO (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

81 29 USC § 152(3).

82 “Acorn’s Ally at the NLRB,” The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 15, 2009, http://goo.gl/n5qCZ (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).(Subscription Required.)

83 Service Employees International Union, Local 434 v Los Angeles Co, 275 Cal Rptr 508 (Cal Ct App 1991)

84 Cal Welf & Inst Code § 12301.6(a)(2)

85 Cal Welf & Inst Code § 12301.6(c)(1).

86 David L. Gregory, “Labor Organizing by Executive Order: Governor Spitzer and the Unionization of Home-Based Child Day-Care Providers,” (Fordham Urban Law Journal, 2007), 280, http://goo.gl/a2Ih0 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

87 Now Article 15, Section 11(f), of the Oregon Constitution.

88 Now incorporated as Wash Rev Code § 74.39A.270.

89 Deborah Chalfie, et. al., “Getting Organized: Unionizing Home-based Child Care Providers,” 7 (2007).

90 Tom Gantert, “E-mails Reveal Child Care Union All About the Money,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009),  http://goo.gl/ S8FxL (accessed Oct. 7, 2012); http://goo.gl/z6r4K (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

91 Paul Kersey, “Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of Union Financial Disclosure Reports,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), http://goo.gl/mp1HL (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

92 “SEIU ensnared in political corruption case involving Gov. Blagojevich,” (McKnight’s Long-Term Care News & Assisted Living, Dec. 15, 2008),  http://goo.gl/FXWZO (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

93 “SEIU Healthcare Michigan v Gov. Richard Snyder et al, Supplemental Brief in Support of Plaintiff’s Motion for Preliminary Injunction,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy (United States District Court Eastern District of Michigan Southern Division), 2012), 2,
http://goo.gl/7Ujim (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).

94 Railway Employees’ Dept v Hanson, 351 US 225, 234, 76 SCt 714 (1956).

95 See, for example, NLRB v Fansteel Metallurgical Corp, 306 US 240, 59 SCt 490 (1939).

96 Harris v Quinn, 656 F3d 692 (7th Cir 2011). The Supreme Court has invited the U.S. Solicitor General to provide it with the view of the United States on this matter — a likely sign that the court will hear this appeal from the 7th circuit. --- SCt ---- 2012, WL 2470091.

97 Patrick J. Wright, “Sherry Loar, Michelle Berry and Paulette Silverson v. Michigan Department of Human Services: A Legal Brief to the Michigan Supreme Court,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), 7-11, http://goo.gl/eqbT4 (accessed Oct. 7, 2012).