1. Press Release from the Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Library celebrating its 1-year anniversary, accessible on the Internet at http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-129-1859_1861-53017--M_2002_10,00.html.

  2. Russell Kirk, "The Politics of Prudence," Bryn Mawr, Penn.: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1993, p. 193.

  3. Frederic Bastiat, "The Law," Irvington, N.Y.: The Foundation for Economic Education, 1998, p. 29.

  4. See Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Libraries web site, "What is the Michigan Film Office," http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17445_19275---,00.html.

  5. Act No. 523, p. 2.

  6. Executive Order No. 1991-21.

  7. See Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Libraries web site, "Mission Statement," at http://www.cis.state.mi.us/arts/mission.htm.

  8. Act No. 523, p. 2; and telephone interview with Nick Bozen of Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Libraries, Dec. 30, 2002.

  9. See Michigan Department of History, Arts, and Libraries web site, "FY 2003 Arts & Cultural Grants," at http://www.cis.state.mi.us/arts/grants/grants.htm.

  10. The figure of $24,381,700 under "Gross Appropriation" does not exactly match the enacted figure in Act No.523. The Act shows an appropriation of $12.4 million. This was later revised upward. The author took the liberty of rolling the supplemental appropriation into this analysis to reflect the true potential savings from eliminating the program.

  11. Fiscal year 2003 the Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs grant application form, "Artist in Residence for Education Program," Lansing School District, p. 5. Other work for the "teaching artist" including dressing up as Cortez and "barking out orders in gibberish so the students would understand the language problem the Aztecs faced, and how threatened they felt."

  12. Quoted in Bill Kauffman, "Subsidies to the Arts: Cultivating Mediocrity," Washington, D.C.: The Cato Institute, Policy Analysis No. 137, 1990, p. 6. Accessible on the Internet at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa137.html, p. 14.

  13. Kauffman, p. 7.

  14. Kauffman, p. 14.

  15. David Bardallis, Viewpoint commentary "Ernest Hemingway and Arts Subsidies: A Farewell to Alms," July 1999, accessible on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/1949.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Ibid.

  18. See the Central Park Conservancy web site, "Support the Conservancy," accessible on the Internet at http://www.centralparknyc.org/support.

  19. See the Michigan Historical Center web site, "The Michigan Historical Center," at http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17445_19277_19523---,00.html.

  20. Act No. 271, Public Acts of 1913.

  21. See the museum system’s web site, "Welcome to Michigan Historical Museum System," at http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,7-160-17447_18595---,00.html.

  22. Act No. 271, Public Acts of 1913.

  23. Historian Burton W. Folsom, Jr. produced his 1997 book, "Empire Builders: How Michigan Entrepreneurs Helped Make America Great," entirely with private funding, for example.