1. Act No. 517, Public Acts of 2002, p. 2.

  2. Michigan Department of Career Development, “Annual Report,” 2001.

  3. Cynthia M. Fagnoni, “Workforce Investment Act: Implementation Status and Integration of TANF Services,” testimony to the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Life-Long Learning of the U. S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Workforce, and the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, GAO/T-HEHS-00-145, June. 29, 2000, p. 1; Daniel O’Shea and Christopher T. King, “The Workforce Investment Act: Restructuring Workforce Development Initiatives in States and Localities,” Report # 12, Albany: Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, State University of New York, April 2001.

  4. New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144 at 174 and 178.

  5. Michigan Department of Career Development, “State of Michigan Strategic Five-Year Workforce Investment Act Plan,” www.michigan.gov/mdcd/0,1607,7-122--8809--,00.html Oct. 31, 2002.

  6. Act No. 517, p. 2.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Michigan Department of Career Development, “State of Michigan Strategic Five-Year Workforce Investment Act Plan,” www.michigan.gov/mdcd/0,1607,7-122--8809--,00.html Oct. 31, 2002.

  9. Act No. 517, p. 2.

  10. Established in 1993 by Executive Order 1993-3 See www.michigan.gov/eMI/Portal/CDC/Components/eMI_CDA

  11. Created by Executive Order 2002-05 by Gov. John Engler on Mar. 27, 2002.

  12. Michigan Department of Career Development web page, “Michigan’s Workforce Investment Board,” accessible on the Internet at http://www.michigan.gov/mdcd/0,1607,7-122-1683_18969---,00.html.

  13. Kimble F. Ainslie, “Staffing Service Industry Under Fire,” Current Commentary, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Sept. 18, 2002; www.mackinac.org/4665.

  14. Interview between Michael LaFaive and Kyle Caldwell of the Michigan Community Service Commission, Dec. 19, 2002.

  15. Michigan Community Service Commission web site, “MCSC Mission and Vision,” accessible on the Internet at http://www.michigan.gov/mcsc/0,1607,7-137-6113-20613--,00.html.

  16. Act No. 517, Public Acts of 2002, p. 2.

  17. Michigan Career Technical Institute web site, “Welcome to the Michigan Career and Technical Institute,” accessible on the Internet at http://www.michigan.gov/mdcd/0,1607,7-122-1681_2913---,00.html.

  18. Act No. 517, Public Acts of 2002, p. 3.

  19. Ibid.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Bob Schneider and Barb Endres, “Line Item and Boilerplate Summary,” Career Development and Michigan Strategic Fund, fiscal year 2001-2002, Jan. 2002, p. 8.

  23. Each appropriation figure in this grant section can be found in Act No. 517, p. 3. This single endnote is used to avoid a string of Ibids created by referencing each grant entry. In addition, there exists a discrepancy between the appropriated amount listed in Act No. 517, and a newer source (Line Item and Boilerplate Summary) from the House Fiscal Agency. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy used the figure from the Line Item and Boilerplate Summary, Career Development and Strategic Fund document in this chapter.

  24. For more information on remedial education, see Jay P. Greene, Ph.D, “The Cost of Remedial Education, How Much Michigan Pays When Students Fail to Learn Basic Skills,” Sept. 2000.

  25. Act No. 517, Public Acts of 2002, p. 4.

  26. Ibid.