1 Leanne Smith, "State's 'priority' ranking for Middle School at Parkside results in replacement of Principal William Patterson," MLive, April 15, 2013, http://goo.gl/bQLuB9 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

2 Jackson Public Schools Superintendent Dan Evans, phone correspondence with Audrey Spalding, Aug. 30, 2013.

3 Audrey Spalding, "Michigan Public Elementary and Middle School Context and Performance Database," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2013), http://goo.gl/AkI8d3 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

4 "2012-13 Top to Bottom School List," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/OFYvQk (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

5 Leanne Smith, "State's 'priority' ranking for Middle School at Parkside results in replacement of Principal William Patterson," MLive, April 15, 2013, http://goo.gl/bQLuB9 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

6 Jackson Public Schools Superintendent Dan Evans, phone correspondence with Audrey Spalding, Aug. 30, 2013.

7 MCL § 380.1280c(2); Peter Kickbush, "What's Possible: Turning Around America's Lowest-Achieving Schools," (U.S. Department of Education, 2010), http://goo.gl/BSW6 (accessed Oct. 4, 2013).

8 "House Bill 4369 of 2013," (Michigan Legislature, 2013), http://goo.gl/GQab3V (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

9 Brendan Walsh, "Free and reduced lunch is a factor from top to bottom," Sept. 2, 2011), http://goo.gl/rvPo46 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

10 Dave Britten, "Michigan Top-to-Bottom Ranking - Just Another Indictment of Poverty," Aug. 23, 2013), http://goo.gl/sMLala (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

11 "2013 TTB List and Priority, Focus and Reward Designationsin Brief," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/AitgyW (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

12 Audrey Spalding, "School Choice Benefits Students," (Michigan Capitol Confidential, 2013), http://goo.gl/tEX6jf (accessed Oct. 4, 2013).

13 Michigan Department of Education, "98 Lowest Achieving Schools Identified; and Latest "Top-to-Bottom" School Rankings Released," (Michigan Department of Education, Aug. 26, 2011), http://goo.gl/88rKE (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

14 For example, see: Lindsay Knake, "See how your Bay County school district fares in Michigan education department top-to-bottom rankings," MLive, Aug. 20, 2013, http://goo.gl/4tEcDz (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

15 "ESEA Flexibility Request," (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), http://goo.gl/GCSzfu (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

16 "Demonstrating That an SEA's Lists of Reward, Priority, and Focus Schools Meet ESEA Flexibility Definitions," (U.S. Department of Education), http://goo.gl/BBpPX1 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

17 "Demonstrating That an SEA's Lists of Reward, Priority, and Focus Schools Meet ESEA Flexibility Definitions," (U.S. Department of Education), 5, http://goo.gl/BBpPX1 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

18 "Focus Schools," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/WLE6fV (accessed Sept. 20, 2013).

19 Venessa Keesler, "Understanding the Top-to-Bottom Ranking," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/GLfcF7 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

20 "Top-to-Bottom Ranking, Priority, Focus and Reward Schools Identification Business Rules," (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), 1, http://goo.gl/iWbWV (accessed Oct. 4, 2013); "Focus Schools 2013-14: An Overview," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/XBjcKO (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

21 "Requirements and Supports for all Focus Schools, 2013/14," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/X71gQ7 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

22 "Priority Schools: Overview," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), 3, http://goo.gl/0m9Z0E (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

23 Ibid., 6-15.

24 "Reward Schools," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/udAOcG (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

25 "At-a-Glance Overview: Reward Schools," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/DjDzoC (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

26 Authors calculations using "2011-12 Data Needed for Replication of the Top-to-Bottom Ranking," (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), http://goo.gl/E0kEI (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

27 Author’s calculations based on "Top to Bottom Ranking," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/DehH1D (accessed Sept. 10, 2013); "Elementary/Secondary Information System," (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013), http://goo.gl/ED34jG (accessed Sept. 10, 2013).

28 Michael Van Beek, Daniel Bowen, and Jonathan Mills, "The Michigan Public High School Context and Performance Report Card," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), http://goo.gl/tGTbP (accessed Sept. 16, 2013); Audrey Spalding, "The Michigan Context and Performance Report Card: Public Elementary & Middle Schools, 2013," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy 2013), http://goo.gl/yIZcq3 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

29 Patrick O'Donnell, "Teachers' 'value-added' ratings and relationship to student income levels questioned," Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 18, 2013, http://goo.gl/GliICFaccessed Sept. 17, 2013). "Our View: School grading system gets an F: Time for state to try something else," Portland Press Herald, Sept. 1, 2013, http://goo.gl/xOAVi6 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013). Carrie Coppernoll, "A-F grading system reflects poverty in Oklahoma Schools," NewsOK, Feb. 25, 2013, http://goo.gl/U6ZKBz (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

30 "The A-F Letter Grade System," (Arizona Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/EenmO7 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013). Arizona’s school grading system does not include “small,” “K-2” or “alternative schools.”

31 "District & School Report Cards: Interpretive Guide," (Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2013), 7, http://goo.gl/D3C7l0 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

32 "2013 Assembly Bill 40," (Wisconsin Legislature, 2013), 10, http://goo.gl/g39sEp (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

33 "How Ohio's Voucher Program Works," StateImpact, http://goo.gl/CAynh3 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

34 Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 15-241.AA

35 "2012-13 Top to Bottom School List," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/OFYvQk (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

36 "Excellent Schools Detroit Releases Citywide List of Top 20 K-8 Schools; DPS Scores 12 of 20," (Detroit Public Schools, April 15, 2013), http://goo.gl/a4HVdD (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

37 Audrey Spalding, "The Michigan Context and Performance Report Card: Public Elementary & Middle Schools, 2013," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy 2013), http://goo.gl/yIZcq3 (accessed Sept. 16, 2013).

38 Chastity Dawsey, "U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan 'very encouraged' by visit to Michigan's reform district," Detroit Free Press, May 6, 2013, http://goo.gl/YGDdz4 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

39 Mich Const 1963, Article VIII, Sec. 2.

40 Michael Van Beek, "Michigan Schools of Innovation: Berrien Springs Public Schools," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2013), http://goo.gl/1K3MiO (accessed Sept. 17, 2013); Michael Van Beek, "A Digital Learning Success Story," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), http://goo.gl/o0mQTw (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

41 MCL § 388.1606(6)(p).

42 "Charter School Program Grant Applications - Updated," (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/5h8q8b (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

43 "Pupil Accounting Manual: 51 - Section 105 and 105c Schools of Choice Pupils," (Michigan Department of Education, June 2011), http://goo.gl/Avvzye (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

44 Michael Van Beek, "Let Online Learning Flourish," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012), http://goo.gl/7ILDos (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).

45 Liyang Mao and Bettie Landauer-Menchik, "A Comparison of Michigan’s Charter School Authorizers " (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/CGqCwv (accessed Sept. 23, 2013); Grand Valley State University Charter Schools Office, "Contract Performance Review: Charter School Academy High School," (Grand Valley State University, 2012).

46 Mark Ehlert et al., "Selecting Growth Measures for School and Teacher Evaluations: Should Proportionality Matter?," (National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 2013), 21, http://goo.gl/cNGQO9 (accessed Sept. 17, 2013).