All quotes and statistics not specifically sourced in endnotes came from interviews conducted by the author. Some language contained in the captions of this Case Study appears verbatim in previous Mackinac Center publications. The author wishes to thank the following educators for the time, information and expertise they provided him in writing this Case Study:

James Bermingham, superintendent, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Brandon Waggoner, director, Berrien Springs Virtual Academy, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Bill Bergan, director, Berrien Springs Alternative Education Center, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Ryan Pesce, middle school principal, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Dave Eichberg, high school principal, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Jan Bermingham, program coordinator, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Bob Kubiack, principal, The Virtual Site, Berrien Springs Public Schools

Erv Brinker, CEO, Summit Pointe®

Marsha Myles, president and CEO, EdTech Specialists

ALL PHOTOS by Daniel Montgomery, Mackinac Center marketing and design director. With the exception of the back cover, all photos were taken at Berrien Springs Public Schools.

 ENDNOTES

1. For school enrollment information, see “Bulletin 1014 - Michigan Public Schools Ranked by Select Financial Information,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), http://goo.gl/WJezO (accessed July 17, 2013); “Common Core of Data: Build a Table,” (U.S. Department of Education: National Center for Education Statistics), http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/bat/ (accessed July 17, 2013).

2. For instance, the amount districts were required to contribute to the Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System were equivalent to 12.17 percent of a district’s payroll in fiscal 2002, but rose to 17.74 percent by fiscal 2007. “Employer Information: Office of Retirement Services: Public School Employees Retirement System: FY 2001-02,” (Michigan Office of Retirement Services, 2012), http://goo.gl/l4wWh (accessed July 17, 2013); “Employer Information: Office of Retirement Services: Public School Employees Retirement System: FY 2006-07,” (Michigan Office of Retirement Services, 2012), http://goo.gl/l6Q6L (accessed July 17, 2013).

3. A school district’s general fund balance refers to its savings as a portion of total general fund expenditures. “Fund Balance and Related Issues,” (Michigan School Business Officials, 2010), http://goo.gl/cZXTh (accessed July 17, 2013); “School Finance: Fund Balance Information: Fund Balance,” (Michigan School Business Officials, 2011), http://goo.gl/VE0bi (accessed April 27, 2012).

4. Author’s calculations based on “2005-2006 State Aid Financial Status Report,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2006), http://goo.gl/Umgmi (accessed July 17, 2013); “2011-2012 State Aid Financial Status Report,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), http://goo.gl/bpibG (accessed July 17, 2013).

5. Author’s calculation based on “2010-11 Bulletin 1014,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2011), http://goo.gl/C1ypt (accessed July 17, 2013); “2005-06 Bulletin 1014,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2005), http://goo.gl/ghPu3 (accessed July 17, 2013). These calculations exclude public charter schools and conventional school districts with fewer than 50 students.

6. Author’s calculations based on “Public Student Counts (Headcount Data),” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/ElN3x (accessed July 17, 2013).

7. For more information, see “Schools of Choice,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/w2hLG (accessed July 17, 2013).

8. “State Aid Foundation Allowance Parameters 1995-2013,” (Michigan Department of Education, 2013), http://goo.gl/GqJRnO (accessed July 25, 2013); “2012-2013 State Aid Financial Status Report,” (Michigan Department of Education), http://goo.gl/f3yiV (accessed July 17, 2013).

9. Author’s calculations based on “Free and Reduced Lunch Counts,” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2012), http://goo.gl/Lf21Y (accessed April 27, 2012).

10. “2005-06 Pupil Headcount Data (SRSD),” (Michigan Department of Education), http://goo.gl/rbjJO (accessed July 17, 2013); “2011-12 Pupil Headcount Data (MSDS),” (Michigan Department of Education), http://goo.gl/Mtd3p (accessed July 17, 2013).

11. “District Profile,” (Berrien Springs Public Schools), 3, http://goo.gl/ fAcls (accessed May 15, 2012).

12. For more information about these types of public-private school partnerships see: “Public and private schools share faculty for electives,” Michigan Education Report (2006), http://goo.gl/WQd4B (accessed July 17, 2013).

13. “District Profile,” (Berrien Springs Public Schools), 10, http://goo.gl/fAcls (accessed May 15, 2012).