1   John C. Taylor, “Michigan Liquor Distribution Systems: An Historical Review and Analysis,” (1992): 175; “Welcome,” (LARA: Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, 2012), http://goo.gl/K49Vv (accessed April 23, 2012).

2   See, for instance, Tim R. Sass and David S. Saurman, “Mandated Exclusive Territories and Economic Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis of the Malt-Beverage Industry,” Journal of Law and Economics Vol. 36, no. 1 (1993) http://goo.gl/69wFB (accessed May 17, 2012); Staff of the Federal Trade Commission, “Possible Anticompetitive Barriers to E-Commerce: Wine,” (Federal Trade Commission, 2003), http://goo.gl/0ycsb (accessed April 12, 2012).

3   John Groen, “Office of Regulatory Reinvention Creates Liquor Control Advisory Rules Committee ORR requests citizens to serve on these committees,” (State of Michigan, 2011), http://goo.gl/oXl1p; John Groen, “Office of Regulatory Reinvention Appoints Members to the Liquor Control Advisory Rules Committee,” (State of Michigan: Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, 2011), http://goo.gl/vVCjF (accessed March 29, 2012).

4   Mike Tobias and Marie Hansen, “Dozens of Groups Sign Letter Supporting Strong Alcohol Laws and Public Health as Controversial Committee Recommends Changes,” (Michigan Alcohol Policy Promoting Health & Safety, 2011), http://goo.gl/wSwnY (accessed February 2, 2012); “Mend It, Don’t End It — Alcohol Laws and Controls Work in Michigan!,” (Michigan Alcohol Policy Promoting Health & Safety, 2011), http://goo.gl/46kVx (accessed February 2, 2012).

5   Boudreaux and Williams, “Impaired Judgment: The Failure of Control States to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems,” (Virginia Institute for Public Policy, 2010), 2-3, http://goo.gl/nrp6x (accessed March 27, 2012).

6   Ibid., 3.

7   These definitions are taken from John Pulito and Antony Davies, “State Control of Alcohol Sales as a Means of Reducing Traffic Fatalities: A Panel Analysis,” 2010), 16, http://goo.gl/8mMLh (accessed April 9, 2012).

8   Authors’ calculations based on “Alcohol and Public Health: Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI),” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008), Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) Alcohol-Attributable Deaths, http://goo.gl/U5GsA (accessed April 20, 2012); “Population Estimates: State Intercensal Estimates (2000-2010),” (United States Census Bureau, 2011), http://goo.gl/TJv2M (accessed April 20, 2012).

9   Pulito and Davies, “State Control of Alcohol Sales as a Means of Reducing Traffic Fatalities: A Panel Analysis,” 2010), http://goo.gl/8mMLh (accessed April 9, 2012).

10 Ibid., 9, 18.

11 Ibid., 10.

12 Ibid., 6-7.

13 Ibid., 9.

14 Ibid., 10.

15 Boudreaux and Williams, “Impaired Judgment: The Failure of Control States to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems,” (Virginia Institute for Public Policy, 2010), 3, http://goo.gl/nrp6x (accessed March 27, 2012).

16 Authors’ calculations based on 2001 and 2005 data in “Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia: FARS Data Tables,” (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), FARS Data Tables, http://goo.gl/8BBWq (accessed April 21, 2012); “Population Estimates: State Intercensal Estimates (2000-2010),” (United States Census Bureau, 2011), http://goo.gl/TJv2M (accessed April 20, 2012).

17 Authors’ calculations based on 2001 data in “Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia: FARS Data Tables,” (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), FARS Data Tables, http://goo.gl/8BBWq (accessed April 21, 2012); “Population Estimates: State Intercensal Estimates (2000-2010),” (United States Census Bureau, 2011), http://goo.gl/TJv2M (accessed April 20, 2012).

18 Authors’ calculations based on 2001 and 2005 data in “Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia: FARS Data Tables,” (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), FARS Data Tables, http://goo.gl/8BBWq (accessed April 21, 2012); “Population Estimates: State Intercensal Estimates (2000-2010),” (United States Census Bureau, 2011), http://goo.gl/TJv2M (accessed April 20, 2012).

19 “Mend It, Don’t End It — Alcohol Laws and Controls Work in Michigan!,” (Michigan Alcohol Policy Promoting Health & Safety, 2011), 2, http://goo.gl/46kVx (accessed February 2, 2012).

20 Taylor, “Michigan Liquor Distribution Systems: An Historical Review and Analysis,” (1992): 177.

21 The reader may also wish to review Pulito and Davies, “Government-Run Liquor Stores: The Social Impact of Privatization”  (Commonwealth Foundation, 2009), http://goo.gl/bD9ld (accessed April 9, 2012).

22 Ibid. Pulito and Davies note that their findings are consistent with the hypothesis that heavy alcohol control in Pennsylvania leads Pennsylvanians to make liquor purchases in neighboring states, where alcohol is less expensive. There is evidence that such cross-border purchases occur in Michigan, as well. The Michigan Liquor Control Commission has estimated that $14 million a year is lost due to alcohol smuggling into the state. “Illegal Importation of Alcohol into Michigan,” (State of Michigan: Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth, Liquor Control Commission, January 15, 2008), http://goo.gl/aoOTR (accessed August 9, 2011). This smuggling is probably a function of the higher prices found in Michigan relative to, say, Indiana, which is a license state.

23 Boudreaux and Williams, “Impaired Judgment: The Failure of Control States to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems,” (Virginia Institute for Public Policy, 2010), 2, http://goo.gl/nrp6x (accessed March 27, 2012).

24 Jim Lynch, “Michigan considers relaxing liquor laws: State control of sales, licensing are among issues under study,” (The Detroit News, 2011), http://goo.gl/HW5nd (accessed December 13, 2011).

25 Tenaya Marie Sunbury, “Urban-Rural Influences on Driving Behaviors and Driving Outcomes Among Michigan Young Adults: An Investigation of Roadway Characteristics, Alcohol Establishments, and Social Influences,” (University of Michigan, 2010), http://goo.gl/VL2BU (accessed March 29, 2012).

26 Ibid., 28.

27 Ibid., 28-30.

28 Ibid., 77.

29 Ibid., 79.

30 Patrick McCarthy, “Alcohol-related crashes and alcohol availability in grass-roots communities,” Applied Economics (2003).

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid., 1332.

33 Ibid., 1337-38.

34 Ibid., 1337.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.